Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa, bordered by Kenya, Sudan, Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania. Straddling the equator, much of her southern border is dominated by Lake Victoria. It is a tremendously lush country, dotted with lakes and rivers (the most famous being the Nile) and the west is fringed by the glacier-capped Rwenzoris Mountains. Covering an area of 235,796km² it is similar in size to Great Britain or the state of Oregon in the USA.
One of the most striking features is the lushness of the country, from the air much of the country seems to shimmer.
Endless lakes, rivers, waterfalls and wetlands make Uganda a lush tropical haven, and its borders seem naturally geographical: Lake Victoria dominates the South, her blue waters funneling into the Nile River which journeys the length of Uganda. Mountains form the Western borders, the Virunga volcanoes and the legendary and mysterious Rwenzori Mountains, known as the “Mountains of the Moon”. The far North stretches towards the Sahara and the East transforms into arid plains.
Uganda covers an area of 236,580 sq. meters, is situated on the equator, and lies on a plateau which rises between the eastern and western branches of the Great Rift Valley. Most of the country is above 1,000m in altitude. It is dotted with tourist attractions from spectacular scenery, the variety of wildlife to welcoming people. Our customized safaris to Uganda in the accommodation of your choice, ranging from luxury to medium to budget will enable you get the most out of Uganda.
As safari destination, Uganda will give you a nature opportunity ranging from gorilla and chimpanzee tracking, to wild life viewing, to boat rides and white water rafting, to forest guided walks, mountain hiking and unforgettable community experiences under the great cool weather.
Big game safari
Culture and Art
Gorilla tracking Uganda
Sand, sun and strolls Lake victoria
White water rafting
Bwindi Impenetrable Forest
Queen Elizabeth National Park
Murchison Falls National Park
Kibaale National Park
Semliki National Park
Mt Elgon National Park
Lake Mburo National Park
Kidepo National Park
Mgahinga National Park
|President:||Yoweri Museveni (1986)|
|Land area:||93,065 sq mi (236,580 sq km)|
|Population:||(2014 provisional.): 34.9 million (growth rate: 3.03%)|
|Capital and largest city:||Kampala, 1,461,600 (metro. area)|
About 500 B.C. Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to the area now called Uganda. By the 14th century, three kingdoms dominated, Buganda (meaning “state of the Gandas”), Bunyoro, and Ankole. Uganda was first explored by Europeans as well as Arab traders in 1844. An Anglo-German agreement of 1890 declared it to be in the British sphere of influence in Africa, and the Imperial British East Africa Company was chartered to develop the area. The company did not prosper financially, and in 1894 a British protectorate was proclaimed. Few Europeans
permanently settled in Uganda, but it attracted many Indians, who became important players in Ugandan commerce.
Uganda became independent on Oct. 9, 1962. Sir Edward Mutesa, the king of Buganda (Mutesa II), was elected the first president, and Milton Obote the first prime minister, of the newly independent country. With the help of a young army officer, Col. Idi Amin, Prime Minister Obote seized control of the government from President Mutesa four years later.
On Jan. 25, 1971, Colonel Amin deposed President Obote. Obote went into exile in Tanzania. Amin expelled Asian residents and launched a reign of terror against Ugandan opponents, torturing and killing tens of thousands. In 1976, he had himself proclaimed “President for Life.” In 1977, Amnesty International estimated that 300,000 may have died under his rule, including church leaders and recalcitrant cabinet ministers.
After Amin held military exercises on the Tanzanian border in 1978, angering Tanzania's president, Julius Nyerere, a combined force of Tanzanian troops and Ugandan exiles loyal to former president Obote invaded Uganda and chased Amin into exile in Saudi Arabia in 1979. After a series of interim administrations, President Obote led his People's Congress Party to victory in 1980 elections that opponents charged were rigged. On July 27, 1985, army troops staged a coup and took over the government. Obote fled into exile. The military regime installed Gen. Tito Okello as chief of state.
The National Resistance Army (NRA), an anti-Obote group led by Yoweri Museveni, kept fighting after it had been excluded from the new regime. It seized Kampala on Jan. 29, 1986, and Museveni was declared president. Museveni has transformed the ruins of Idi Amin and Milton Obote's Uganda into an economic miracle, preaching a philosophy of self-sufficiency and anticorruption.
Western countries have flocked to assist him in the country's transformation. Nevertheless, it remains one of Africa's poorest countries. A ban on political parties was lifted in 1996, and the incumbent Museveni won 72% of the vote, reflecting his popularity due to the country's economic recovery.
Uganda has waged an enormously successful campaign against AIDS, dramatically reducing the rate of new infections through an intensive public
health and education campaign. Museveni won reelection in March 2001 with 70% of the vote, following a nasty and spirited campaign.
Close ties with Rwanda (many Rwandan Tutsi exiles helped Museveni come to power) led to the cooperation of Uganda and Rwanda in the ousting of Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997, and a year later, in efforts to unseat his successor, Laurent Kabila, whom both countries originally supported but from whom they grew estranged. But in 1999, Uganda and Rwanda quarreled over strategy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and began fighting each other. The two countries mended their differences in 2002. Uganda also signed a peace accord with the Congo in Sept. 2002 and finally withdrew its remaining troops from the country in May 2003. In July 2005, parliament amended the constitution to eliminate term limits, thus allowing President Museveni another term in office. In August, a multiparty political system was reinstituted after a 19-year absence. In Feb. 2006, Museveni was reelected with 59% of the vote.
Uganda's 18-year-long battle against the brutal Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), an extremist rebel group based in Sudan, showed signs of abating in Aug. 2006, when the rebels agreed to declare a truce. Between 8,000 and 10,000 children have been abducted by the LRA to form the army of “prophet” Joseph Kony, whose aim was to take over Uganda and run it according to his vision of Christianity. The boys are turned into soldiers and the girls into sex slaves. Up to 1.5 million people in northern Uganda have been displaced because of the fighting and the fear that their children will be abducted. Kony and four other LRA leaders are wanted for war crimes by the International Criminal Court.
The climate is good in Uganda all year round and the bulk of the country is tropical with daytime temperatures generally hovering between 24-28°C. It cools down considerably at night (about 16-18°C), enough to warrant bringing a sweatshirt, fleece or wrap. The rains come twice a year, in October/November (short rains) and late March to end of May. However, rainy season is no reason to postpone travel as it generally rains for an hour leaving the rest of the day clear and sunny.
Visas are now necessary for most nationals and should be obtained prior to travel. Single entry visas can also be easily obtained from the airport on arrival at a cost of $50.00 per person (please check for updates).Or The East African Visa at $ 100.00 taking you to Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda. http://www.immigration.go.ug
Yellow fever vaccinations are required and we recommend anti–malaria tablets, especially during the rainy season. Most prescription drugs can be bought affordably and with ease over the counter in Kampala. Personal insurance is strongly advised. http://www.who.int/countries/uga/en
English is the official language, but Ugandans speak many local languages and dialects, Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages. Swahili is also widely spoken and understood.
Currently there is one international airport at Entebbe, an hour’s drive from Kampala. A number of international airlines fly direct to Entebbe, among them Kenya Airways, Emirates, KLM,SN Brussels and SAA. Most major towns have an airstrip as do most National Parks and Game Reserves.
Weight limits on light aircraft flights within Uganda are 12 kgs/26 lbs including hand luggage. All bags must be soft - no hard suitcases or wheeled bags permitted. No excess baggage will be allowed on these flights.
The Uganda Shilling is the local currency and it is best to bring American dollars to be exchanged. There are numerous Forex bureaux and banks in the capital and the main towns. Credit cards are accepted in major hotels and restaurants, but generally it is best to carry cash (shillings) upcountry while on safari.
With regards to clothing you are going to be hot, cold and possibly wet on the trekking. So would suggest light clothing, shorts, t-shirts, flip flops, hat, and study shoes are essential for trekking. Long sleeved-shirts and a sweatshirt or fleece for evenings. Women in rural towns may feel more comfortable wearing clothing that cover their knees and shoulders, but this is not mandatory. It gets quite hot by mid-day, but evenings are always pleasant. Lodges do not have a dress code and for the most part casual clothes are de rigueur.
Please note our recommendations for all on-foot activities in the parks (walking safaris, chimpanzee and gorilla treks):
As of recently (early 2012) there are 3 gorilla groups in Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable national park. Buhoma group located north of Bwindi made of 3 gorilla families (Habinyanja, Mubare and Rushegura), Ruhija group in central Bwindi has (Oruzogo and Bitukura families) Nkuringo Gorilla family is on its own and Rushaga group comprises of (Nshongi, Mishaya, Kahungye and Busingye gorilla families).One nomadic family is in Mgahinga National park, this family spends a lot of time between Uganda and Rwanda. The family numbers varying between 5 and 31. Each trekking group is allowed a maximum of 8 visitors per day. Tracking commences from the Park office. Tracking is done usually with 1 park guide and 3 armed escorts and porters (should you require the services of a porter there is 1 per person to carry a single bag). The guide liaises with about 2-3 trackers who have gone ahead to ascertain the gorilla group's location. Once the gorillas have been located your group will be allowed a maximum of one hour with them (this time limit is carefully observed and protects the gorillas from undue stress).
This trip is rated as Rigorous Touring/Trekking. The time taken to track the gorillas varies enormously, from as little as half an hour to as much as 9 hours before returning to camp. The terrain is extremely difficult, with steep slopes (often steeper than a flight of stairs) covered in dense vegetation that gives the park its name. In addition, the altitude of 5,200 feet and more means participants do need to be physically fit to enjoy the track.
Tracking conditions differ greatly according to the location of the gorillas, so the exact level of difficulty for a specific trek is impossible to define in advance. Because it is impossible to predict the length and difficulty of any single tracking excursion, this program should not be attempted by anyone who is not in very good physical condition. Because of the climbing and bending required as you make your way through the thick foliage, gorilla tracking should not be attempted by anyone who has any kind of heart or back problem. Only those who are absolutely 100% fit and are capable of walking long distances at high altitudes over slippery, muddy terrain should attempt gorilla tracking. Tracking is likely to involve scrambling through, over, and under dense undergrowth with nettles, barbed vines, and bamboo thickets
Built on seven hills, Kololo, Mengo, Rubaga, Namirembe, Kibuli, Kampala and Nakasero. The name Kampala comes from the Bantu word Mpala meaning a type of antelope, which, it is said, the Buganda chiefs used to keep on the slope of a hill near Mengo Palace. In 1890 Captain Lugard, a British Administrator, established his fort, also an administrative post, on Kampala Hill (now known as Old Kampala Hill) which attracted several hundred people and a small township developed.
Kampala grew and the town spread over the surrounding seven hills. On top of three of these hills, Rubaga, Namirembe and Kibuli, places of worship were built - Catholic, Protestant and Muslim respectively. The town has continued to grow and now encompasses 23 hills over an area of nearly 200km². Over the last few years the city, the centre of most economic activity in Uganda, has changed dramatically. After systematic looting and destruction during the changes in government, it is being rebuilt with office towers, hotels, stadiums and shopping malls appearing almost monthly.
On the hills, all is calm with pleasant colonial-style buildings and pretty streets lined with jacaranda trees. Most of the buildings, if not government offices or embassies, have been turned into apartments. Downhill all is a bustle with a huge street market surrounding the chaotic matatu station and Nakivubo Stadium.
As yet untouched by mass tourism, Uganda's parks and reserves are ideal retreats for the discerning eco-tourist. The experience is very different to that in some of the parks in South Africa, Kenya and Tanzania. Here there are no tarmac roads through the parks, no mass convergence of zebra-camouflaged safari trucks and no animals turning up by appointment! The experience takes you back to basics where patience and good game tracking skills the key.
During the years of civil war and rebel activity hundreds of thousands of animals were killed, often machine-gunned down, resulting in a huge depletion in all of the parks. Tourism is attracting investment and interest, aiding the redevelopment of infrastructure in the National Parks, and with increased control and management the animal populations are on the increase. Uganda’s National Parks encompass and conserve all of the ten major habitat types occurring in Uganda.
530km south west of Kampala (10 hour drive) Nestled down in the southwest of the country, on the edge of the Western Rift Valley this 331km² of montane rainforest is the only forest in Africa where gorillas and chimpanzees occur together. The world population of mountain gorillas is currently estimated at 600, half of which live in Bwindi, alongside an estimated 350-400 chimpanzee. In addition to the gorillas and chimps this ancient rainforest - one of the few in Africa to have flourished throughout the last Ice Age (making it over 25,000 years old) - is home to several other mammals (approx. 93 species) as well as roughly 360 species of bird, including 22 of the 23 Albertine Rift endemic species.
435km southwest of Kampala (5.5 hour drive) Lying across the equator, this 1,978km² park is bordered to the southwest by Lake Edward and to the northeast by Lake George with the Kazinga Channel connecting the two. Queen Elizabeth boasts one of the highest biodiversity ratings of any game park or reserve in the world, with almost 100 mammal species and an incredible 606 bird species. To support such biodiversity the vegetation is hugely varied from open savannah to rainforest, from dense papyrus swamps and crater lakes to the vastness of Lake Edward. The rainforest in the Kyambura Gorge is home to chimpanzees and the remote Ishasha Sector is famed for its tree-climbing lions with flamingoes providing a stunning splash of colour on the crater lakes.
375km west of Kampala (5.5 hour drive) Previously known as the Toro Game Reserve, Semliki Wildlife Reserve is the oldest protected area in Uganda. It is unique, gifted with geographic barriers that have formed a natural haven for wildlife. Where the savannah is criss-crossed by shining river valleys, and the escarpment, the edge of the Western Rift Valley, plunges into Lake Albert. The habitat diversity within the 558km² area of the reserve supports an array of fauna including lion, leopard, elephant (both savannah and forest species) buffalo, and chimpanzees as well as a staggering number of birds, with over 400 having been recorded.
For centuries these mystical mountains on the border between Uganda and DR Congo have been revered as the Source of the Nile. The ancient philosopher Ptolemy referred to them as ‘the Mountains of the Moon’ in 350AD and they remain little explored despite being the highest mountain range in Africa. The lofty summits of the main mountains are often enveloped in cloud so that for months the permanent ice fields of the highest peaks are hidden from view. It was not until a century ago that the Abruzzi expedition climbed many of the peaks in the range for the first time. 2006 is your chance to celebrate the 100th anniversary of that expedition by reaching the summit yourself.
The popular central circuit begins from the Nyakalengija amidst the thick forests that are home to chimpanzees and forest elephant. As you progress steadily upwards, heavy tropical forests give way to a wide variety of flora and fauna making the climb unique. The luxuriant vegetation that thrives on this rain-soaked massif is nothing short of phenomenal and with each gain in altitude, this remarkable growth changes. Each night sleeping in sturdy mountain huts constructed to survive the weather and keep you dry.
As part of the central circuit, the guided climb gives you the chance to summit Margherita Peak (5109m) on Mt. Stanley which is the highest peak in the range. The final assault on the summit will require the use of ropes and crampons on the ice fields but you do not need any previous experience. This is extremely challenging but ultimately an incredibly rewarding climb.
In all instances tipping should be treated as a personal matter and a gratuity should only be given if you feel the service warrants it. It is important to individually recognize service people such as airport transfer drivers, restaurant and camp or lodge personnel, and your local safari guides with a tip.
350km west of Kampala (4.5 hour drive) This 760km² area of rainforest, interspersed with patches of grassland and swamp, supports a rich variety of fauna, 250 species of animal and over 300 birds. There are 13 different primates here, the highest total for any Ugandan National Park, including a large population of chimpanzees, some of which have been habituated.
840km north east of Kampala (1.5 hour flight or 1day drive). Tucked into the corner of Uganda's border with Sudan and Kenya, Kidepo is a truly stunning park boasting a real sense of wilderness that enchants visitors. The mountainous terrain of the park is broken by the Narus Valley in the southwest and the Kidepo Valley in the northeast and is more typical of Kenya than the rest of Uganda. Whilst the park is large (1,442km²) most of the wildlife is concentrated within the Narus Valley revealing fantastic panoramic views of vast herds of buffalo with elephant, giraffe, waterbuck and zebra grazing alongside. There are also a number of predators present including lion, cheetah, leopard, and spotted hyena.
230km southwest of Kampala (3.5 hour drive) With a varying landscape of open plains, acacia grasslands and marshes this park is home to a huge array of flora and fauna. About 68 different species of mammals can be found within its 260km². The park also has approx. 313 different species of birds including Uganda's national emblem, the crested crane.
300km northwest of Kampala (6 hour drive) The sight of the Nile River, the world's longest river, winding its way through the park and plunging through a narrow gap is unforgettable. The falls are stunning, notable not so much for their size as for their immense power, caused by the 50m-wide Nile being funneled through a narrow cleft (7m-wide) in the rocks before falling into a pool 43m below. The park is vast and beautiful. Predominantly wooded savannah, the 3,980km² area is home to many of Africa's best-known plains animals including giraffe, lions, leopards, elephants, buffaloes, hartebeests and many more. Fishing beneath the falls is quite an experience where Nile perch and tiger-fish provide an exciting challenge to anglers.
Tips may be given in Uganda Shillings or US Dollars.
Airport Representative: US $3 per traveller
Transfer Driver in Entebbe: US $3 per traveller per transfer
Each Airport and hotel porter: US $2 per traveller
Hotel staff (waiter): most hotels and restaurants include a 10% service charge. It is customary to leave a small tip of about US $3 per meal per traveller
Driver/guides: $5-10 per traveller per day
On The Gorilla Trek (Bwindi) Porter: US $ 20 per trek per traveller (30,000ug shillings) Guide (1 per group), Trackers (2-3 per group) and Security Personnel (2-4): US $20-30 (40,000ug shillings) per trek per traveller. This may be given to the head guide in view of the rest of the staff for distribution amongst the staff.
Other Park Guides (Kidepo) Park Guide/Ranger: US $5 per traveller each time of guiding service Lodges and Camp Staff outside Kampala and Entebbe Entire camp/lodge staff: US $6 per traveller per day.
The lodges will have a staff tip box from which tips are distributed equitably amongst the entire staff.
EXCHANGE RATES: As of 01/Jan/2016, the exchange rate was as follows: $1US = 3670.00 Ugandan Shillings
The currency in Uganda is the shilling, and it is available in useable denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 and 50,000 notes.
Please note: US$ Dollar bills smaller in denomination than US$100 may attract a less favorable rate of exchange and notes older than 2009 are not accepted by hotels, banks etc. The reason for this is there were a huge amount of imitation/fake US $ notes, so only the new notes are widely accepted here.